04.10 | Author: earthstuck

Following the results of the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Danish, Copenhagen Agreement form is not satisfactory, the threat of climate change for the real Indonesia. To minimize the impact, Indonesia should be independent.

In addition, Indonesia in international forums in the future must be more active along with other developing countries.

So, among other things, summaries of interviews conducted with Compass Chairman of Indonesian Peasant Union which is also the General Coordinator of La Via Campesina, Henry Saragih, and Secretary General of the People's Coalition for Justice Riza Damanik Fisheries in Jakarta, Sunday (20/12/2009).

Meanwhile, the head of the Secretariat of National Council on Climate Change confirms Agus Purnomo, Indonesia has determined no longer to do the conversion of forest into palm oil plantations. In addition, the agreement of cooperation programs which includes the principle of monitoring, reporting, and verification (MR), it is still being done on the basis of the agreement concerned countries.

Approval generated Copenhagen in Copenhagen, last Saturday, by them called, among other things, a solution that is misleading (false solution) to the threat of global climate change, also be an instrument of control and strengthen the position of industrial countries to trick developing countries and such as the Indonesian archipelago.
In the Copenhagen agreement contained no commitment to industrial countries to reduce emissions in large numbers, but only an agreement to keep the average increase in Earth's temperature does not exceed 2 degrees Celsius compared to the era of industrial revolution (about 250 years ago).

However, there was born a number of agreements in the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperation (AWG-LCA) which of them is a voluntary action related to the efforts of developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Among them are schemes Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) from the countries belonging to the forest owners in the Forest-11 (F-11) with Indonesia as the initiator. In addition, switching to agrofuel policies to reduce use of fossil fuels and the removal of the use of pesticides that were replaced with genetically engineered organisms (genetically modified Organism / GMO).
Henry asserted, for agrofuel, for example, Indonesia would expand palm oil plantations are now the extent of 7 million hectares to 19 million hectares. "If this is done, it will exacerbate global warming," he said.
Oil palm plantations votes so greedy, so the water will result in desertification, while changes in land use will release carbon emissions in large numbers.
"It is not true that there will be expansion of oil palm plantations. With the expansion only 7 million hectares of oil palm plantations are the largest we have, "said Agus Purnomo.
"Figures from where it was? In government documents so far it does not exist. If there is, we will correct, "he said.

According to Henry and also Riza, in the future, in order to reduce emissions to help Indonesia and the global situation, the role of national states must be enlarged and Indonesia should be independent.
In the agricultural sector, Indonesia is better to develop family-based agriculture than dragging on the world that tends to flow in the agricultural industry. According to Henry, the agricultural sector, emissions from the entire process, from transportation, pesticide industry, and so on greenhouse gas emissions to reach 47-57 percent of total emissions.
"If the industry made, there already exists a large corporation that will supply agricultural GMOs. This does not reduce emissions. The result also meant for export which require transportation, which means emissions, "he said.
With a family-based agriculture, he added, because the fertilizer industry decreased use of organic fertilizers, while agricultural output is for the local market, not international. "This is far more effective to reduce global warming," he said. The last ten years the dry season was about eight months of the usual six months.
Riza emphasized that Indonesia must make one's way forward by focusing on the stabilization of the national industry, including the governance of natural resources, increase protection for vulnerable communities, such as fishermen, by issuing weather information in a sustainable and affordable by the fishermen, and also an insurance issue (climate) is free of charge as a token of appreciation and motivation for our fishermen to continue fishing.
According to Riza, as revealed Henry, "Indonesia does not necessarily follow the flow of global trade by sending raw materials for industrial use in developed countries." "What should be strengthened is the domestic industry," he said.
In the marine sector, Riza said, the government should be aware, the impact of climate change has an impact on fishermen, among others, by reducing the number of fishermen from around 4 million people in 2003 lived about 3 million people in 2008. In addition, abrasion and flooding also be going on.
Fishermen income side is now down 50 percent. From research in Tarakan (East Kalimantan), Wakatobi (Central Sulawesi), and the Bay of Jakarta, "In the last five years the fish catch dropped an average of 100 pounds per two people per trip dropped to 40-50 kilograms per two people per trip. Revenue fell from Rp 300,000 per two people per trip to $ 150,000 per two people per trip, "said Riza. Now fish from capture fisheries aquaculture compared to almost 50:50."Once when 80 percent of marine fishing," he said.
Due to extreme climate and fewer fish resources due to global warming, "Women work so had to go into stripper shells or other work," he said.
Henry and Riza agree, the Conference of the Parties to the 16th UN Climate Change Conference in Mexico next year, "Indonesia must build coalitions with developing countries to deal with industrial countries to further develop the local industry."

06.52 | Author: earthstuck

Production of carbon from industrial activities, transportation, and power plants are still out of control. Produced carbon thrown away, and potentially used for other purposes, such as the abdomen is injected back into the earth to remove oil and gas.

"Indonesia does not have a system to require that carbon controls," said Head of the Indonesian National Committee World Energy Council Hardiv Situmeang in a press conference initiated by the British Embassy on Wednesday (23/12/2009) in Jakarta.

Present other sources, the researchers at Lemigas Exploitation Division, Utomo Primary Iskandar, and strategic analysts carbon dioxide from the Shell corporate headquarters in the Netherlands, Michael's son.

According to Hardiv, the current government projects, such as the plan of building 10,000 megawatts of electric power (MW) first and second stage by PLN, yet allows complete with carbon or emissions control.

"Today is the most appropriate moment for Indonesia to start building power plants equipped with carbon capture technology and storage (CCS)," said Michael.

The reason, according to Michael, Indonesia is still a lot of electricity produced by fuel oil from the fossil. The composition of electricity production in 2008 was the use of coal reached 29.6 percent, diesel fuel 47.9 percent, gas 18.7 percent, and others.

Utomo said, opportunities to apply CCS in Indonesia allows, with a combined them for the activities of oil and gas exploitation. The number of oil exploitation wells are old and not yet reached the optimum point of application of CCS to give this opportunity a way to inject carbon into the belly of the Earth's oil and gas reservoirs.

"Recommendations for the carbon source is injected into the reservoir of oil and natural gas have been made," Utomo said.

Some of these recommendations, among others, the source of carbon from the activities of 1000 MW power plant in Indramayu, West Java, that is injected in the area of South Sumatra with estimated channel pipeline needs to reach 655 kilometers. Then for 750 MW power plant Muara Tawar, West Java, that is injected into the Java Sea with 15 kilometers of pipeline needs.

According Hardiv, carbon is necessary. Most of the carbon produced from power generation activities so that PLN needs to design a carbon-control requirements for the future.
04.24 | Author: earthstuck
My friends know that global warming? As a student of Chemical Engineering, the global warming issue would have been many times you hear. Whether the mass media, friends, or college course environment. How Indonesia's position in the global warming issue is?
Global Warming Map
Surface temperature anomalies on average during the period 1995 to 2004 with a comparison to the average temperature from 1940 to 1980

Before you go any further, my friends would already know what global warming is not it? Roughly speaking, global warming can be defined as an increase in average temperature of the atmosphere, ocean, and land Earth. Well, what is causing the temperature of the earth increases? One reason is the increased greenhouse effect is happening on earth.

Basically, the greenhouse effect causes the earth's atmosphere is warm and makes the earth can be inhabited by living things. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be a very cold planet. Unfortunately, the greenhouse effect has increased recent decades. That is the core problem of global warming was heralded lately. The sample gases that can cause the greenhouse effect is that CO2, CH4, NOx, Sox, SF6, H2O, and PFC.
World Statistics

Environmental and scientific researchers argue that humans are the main cause of global warming. Greenhouse gas emissions increased 70 percent between 1970 and 2004. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are much higher than their natural content in the last 650 thousand years. The average global temperature has risen 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit (0.72 equivalent moderate Celsius) in the last 100 years. Sea level increases the average 0.175 centimeters every year since 1961. Approximately 20 to 30 percent of species of plants and animals at risk of extinction if temperatures rise 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit (1.5 degrees Celsius equivalent). If the rise in temperature reaches 3 degrees Celsius, 40 to 70 percent of species may be destroyed.

Despite the poor countries that will feel very bad impact, climate change is also sweeping the developed world. In 2020, 75 million to 250 million people of Africa will lack of water resources, population major cities in Asia will be under risk of flooding. In Europe, the extinction of species will be extensive. While in North America, longer heat waves and stinging so that water resources will struggle higher. Extremely weather conditions will be routine events. Tropical storms are more frequent and greater intensity. Heat waves and heavy rains will hit a larger area. The risk of forest fires and the spread of the disease increases. Meanwhile, the drought will reduce the productivity of land and water quality. Sea level rise will trigger a wider flood, fresh water brine, and erode coastal areas.
Temperature Record
Increased. The average temperature of the global 1850 to 2006 relative to 1961-1990
Indonesia and Global Warming

Indonesia contributed seven percent to the levels of carbon pollution, or as much as 2.5 billion tons of CO which affects the occurrence of global warming. This happens because the rate and level of deforestation in Indonesia to reach one million hectares per year.

Rachmat Witoelar said that global warming is becoming a central issue in many parts of the world. One cause of this global warming related logging activities in forest areas that are not offset by planting replacement trees or called deforestation. Forestry sector around the world contribute as much as 20 percent or about 7.5 billion tons of CO content, which triggered global warming. From these figures, Indonesia contributed a third, or as many as seven percent with a total contribution of about 2.5 billion tons of CO.

"To reduce global warming come from deforestation, Indonesia needs to suppress the rate of deforestation has reached one million hectares per year. If successful, it will reduce emissions of 1.2 billion tons of CO. "

Currently, countries in the world belonging to the United Nations were discussing the threat and intensified global warming impact. As a follow-up of the Kyoto meeting in 1997 ago, on December 3-14, 2007 will be held the UN Conference on Climate Change held in Bali. On the other hand, there are a number of countries that refuse to acknowledge the global warming phenomenon, one of the United States and Australia. Until now, both countries are still not willing to implement the Kyoto Protocol meeting. U.S. not ready to reduce emissions from fossil fuels because it hurt the oil industry which annually produces 450 billion dollars per year. One result of the Kyoto Protocol Flexible Mechanism that is, a method that can be applied by countries in the world to reduce industrial emissions.

Well .. as a chemical engineering student, what should we do? I actually just simple, that began instilling environmental awareness in everyday life and in our thoughts and our chemical engineering science. If my friends wanted to design a factory, do not forget the aspect of waste treatment and environment. Although Indonesia's biggest contribution in the global warming is by deforestation, outside the country, CO2 emissions from chemical factories have large contribution in increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Nahh .. Who knows we'll work abroad .. Hehe .. Let's wake up before too late.
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